1) Did you use a sick or vacation day for the appoinment? Or were you eligible to and did use sick leave under a state or federal law (e.g. FMLA) for the absence? If you did, then the termination would seem to have been wrongful because you should have been able to take that day for the appoinment and should contact an employment law attorney: you may have a wrongful termination case.
On the other hand, if you did not use some form of PTO or leave under some state or federal law, you did not have a right to miss work and could be legally terminated for not going to work.
2) To force the former employer to provide the necessary documentation, you will likely have to sue them and in the lawsuit use the process of "discovery" (e.g. written document requests) to get the paperwork and information. You can sue for any losses you have suffered (e.g. not getting paid disability) due to their actions. A lawyer can help you with this, too. Unfortunately, the only way to compel them to provide documents or information if they refuse to do so voluntarily is in a lawsuit.
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